New Publications

New Publications

New Publications

  • 22-11-2021

    Another New Journal Article by IEE PhD Student

    asian journal of international lawAdelAnother new journal article, written by Ihssan Adel Madbouh (one of our PhD students) and Mutaz M. Qafisheh, was recently published in the Asian Journal of International Law:

    Palestine's Accession to Geneva Convention III: Typology of Captives Incarcerated by Israel

    Upon the 2014 State of Palestine's accession to Geneva Convention III, captured Palestinians who took part in belligerent acts against the occupier should be treated as prisoners of war due to the fact that they belong to a party to an armed conflict. These individuals fall under three categories: members of security forces, affiliates of armed resistance groups, and uprisers who fight the occupant spontaneously on an individual basis. Contrary to established rules of IHL, Israel does not make any distinction regarding the status of these three types. Unilateral Israeli treatment of its captives does not hold water under international law. Such actions may trigger liability based on international criminal law, particularly as the ICC decided in 2021 that it possesses jurisdiction to investigate crimes occurring in the territory of Palestine. The mere fact of confining prisoners of war after the cessation of hostilities may constitute a ground for criminal prosecution.

    in: Asian Journal of International Law, 1-30. doi:10.1017/S2044251321000229

  • 19-11-2021

    New Journal Article by PhD Student Bablu Chakma

    AJoSSA journal article by our PhD student ChakmaBablu Chakma was published in the Asian Journal of Social Science:

    Subsistence, risk-taking, and reciprocity among the Tanchangya in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    This paper examines livelihood strategies of Tanchangya culantro cultivators of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, in relation to their subsistence, risk-taking, and reciprocity practices, who have been embroiled in compulsive market participation due to paternalist state policies. It puts forward two propositions. First, the objectives of protecting subsistence and of improving familial situation drive Tanchangya peasants to employ flexible strategies in relation to risk management and income generation. Second, it proposes that reciprocity practices provide minimum security to village households in times of crises and exigencies, and work as a safeguard against the exploitation of capitalist Bengali traders. It concludes that subsistence struggles lead peasant families to choose most suitable crops and farming methods and remain open to diverse income sources. Village reciprocity practices, either as dynamic and evolving relationships between two actors or involving the larger community, having different forms, supplement this struggle of peasants for survival.

    in: Asian Journal of Social Science, 2021 (online 30 October 2021:

  • 11-10-2021

    Several New Articles by Prof. Dr. Markus Kaltenborn

    KaltenbornIEE member Prof. Dr. Markus Kaltenborn has been publishing several new articles during recent months:

    Markus Kaltenborn / Nicola Wiebe: Crisis and Disaster Prevention through a Global Fund for Social Protection, in: Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft / Ruhr-Universität Bochum – Institut für Friedenssicherungsrecht und Humanitäres Völkerrecht (eds.), WorldRiskReport 2021, 17-21,

    Mira Bierbaum, Markus Kaltenborn, Valerie Schmitt and Nicola Wiebe: Financing universal social protection during COVID-19 and beyond: Investing more and better, in: Policy in Focus, 19/2 (2021), 36-38,

    Markus Kaltenborn: Human Rights Approaches, in: Esther Schüring / Markus Loewe (eds.), Handbook of Social Protection Systems, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham 2021, 163-172,

    Markus Kaltenborn: Social Protection Floors as an investment in the future, International Journal of Public Law and Policy (IJPLAP) vol. 6, no. 4 (2020), 312-325,

    Jan Tobias Polak, Markus Kaltenborn, Annika Engelbert, Lea Smidt, Lena Taube and Martin Bruder: Menschenrechte in der Praxis der deutschen Entwicklungspolitik: Empirische Befunde und theoretische Einordnung, in: Zeitschrift für Menschenrechte (zfmr) 1/2021, 46-63

    Markus Kaltenborn, Laura Kreft: Global Fund for Social Protection – Social security for all, in: Development and Cooperation (D+C) April 2021, 15-16,

    Markus Kaltenborn: Social Protection, in: Koen De Feyter/Gamze Türkelli/Stéphanie De Moerloose (eds.), Law and Development Encyclopedia, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2021,

  • 04-10-2021

    Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada Co-authored New Book Chapter

    mein foto2021 10 book coverIEE member Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada, together with Andrea Gatto, wrote a chapter of the newly-published book "Economic Growth and Financial Development":

    Revisiting the East Asian Financial Crises:
    Lessons from Ethics and Development Patterns

    This book chapter offers a conceptual contribution to the development economics and financial development literature by reviewing the East Asian development patterns through an ethical interpretation. The flight of foreign capital and the financial crises that affected some of the most successful East Asian economies led to a critique of their development pathways. However, Japan and the Asian Tigers displayed a lead role for ethics in both their economic and business historical process, as part of the Confucian capitalism. The Asian miracle carries a strong ethical message, to be kept for policy recommendations. These lessons can be useful for regulation purposes and to smooth the risk of upcoming financial crises.

    in: Shahbaz M., Soliman A., Ullah S. (eds): Economic Growth and Financial Development. Effects of Capital Flight in Developing Countries. Springer, Cham., pp 23-31. Online available at

  • 20-09-2021

    New UA Ruhr Studies Publication by Dr. Christina Seeger

    uar studies 74 coverSeegerIEE member Dr. Christina Seeger has just published a new book as volume 74 of our series UA Ruhr Studies on Development and Global Governance:

    Trust and consumers' willingness to pay for safe and certified safe vegetables in West African cities: a comparative analysis of Tamale, Ouagadougou, Bamenda and Bamako.

    Smallholder farmers cultivating in West African cities often lack access to irrigation water and may use wastewater to irrigate their fields, particularly in the dry season. Wastewater contaminates vegetables with pathogens so that local consumers are likely to be exposed to health risks. Market data on consumers' actual payments for safety improved (= pathogen reduced) vegetables are not available in West Africa as vegetables differing in safety levels are sold, due to an information deficit on the consumers' side, at a uniform market price. Certification and repeated purchase experience may reduce these information deficits.

    For both market signals to be effective, trust is required. This book analyses the role of trust in explaining consumers' maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for safe and certified safe food in a Hicksian framework. This theory is tested using household data (n = 2,662) generated from contingent valuation surveys undertaken in Tamale, Ouagadougou, Bamenda and Bamako. The findings show that local consumers are willing to pay substantially higher prices (+40% to +160%) for certified safe vegetables. They further suggest that trust in farmers and traders reduces WTP and trust in certifying institutions increases WTP for certified safe vegetables. Most WTPs were found to be construct valid. They are therefore taken as trustworthy expressions of consumers' preferences for safety improved vegetables. These results stress the need to introduce vegetable certification in West African cities.

    more info

  • 03-08-2021

    Another Forthcoming Article by Britta Niklas and Tobias Bidlingmaier

    NiklasBidlingmaierIEE member Britta Niklas, together with IEE alumni Dr. Tobias Bidlingmaier, wrote a book chapter on

    Chocolate made in Ghana: Socially responsible production and consumption through adding value locally

    (a) Situation faced:
    Ghanaian cocoa farmers barely earn a living wage, despite producing 19% of the world’s cocoa. With almost all processing of cocoa beans occurring outside Ghana, only 13% of the chocolate value creation remains there. Hendrik Reimers, founder of fairafric Ghana Ltd. (fairafric), had a vision to add value locally by producing chocolate in Ghana for export to Europe.
    (b) Action taken:
    This case study describes the story of fairafric, and how it overcame the challenges faced, by (1) establishing close relationships with farmers; (2) finding an investor that offers finance and expertise, while sharing a passion for the product; (3) fundraising at various levels; (4) constructing a chocolate factory in Ghana; and (5) distributing and marketing the chocolate in Europe.
    (c) Results achieved:
    fairafric succeeded in building the first state-of-the art chocolate factory in Ghana, thereby adding substantial value to cocoa production in that country.
    (d) Lessons learned:
    The need to find innovative solutions, to collaborate with relevant stakeholders for production and trading, to differentiate the brand and increase customer retention and brand loyalty through appropriate communication, to show commitment to employees and consumers by being transparent regarding social, ethical and environmental compliance, thereby attracting consumers willing to pay for a fair and sustainable product.

    Forthcoming in: Dealing with Socially Responsible Consumers – Studies in Marketing, Palgrave Macmillan (Springer Nature)

  • 03-08-2021

    Soon-to-be-published Journal Article by Britta Niklas

    NiklasWEP CoverA new journal article by IEE member Britta Niklas (together with Adeline Alonso Ugaglia, Wolfram Rinke, Daniel Moscovici, and Jeff Gow) will soon be published in Wine Economics and Policy:

    Consumer preferences for Certified Wines in France: A Comparison of Sustainable Labels

    The wine industry has faced various environmental and social challenges. On the demand side, consumer demand for sustainable wines has been increasing but, to date, it is unknown whether consumers perceive wine companies’ efforts to obtain sustainable development (SD) certifications and labels as being valuable or how they differentiate them. On the supply side, sustainable wine production is increasing but producers report a lack of information to engage and select their SD strategy. This article uses a logistic regression and an artificial neural network model to show how French consumers differentiate and value different SD labels (Organic, Biodynamic, Sustainable, Fairtrade, Natural). Results show that consumers’ willingness to buy and willingness to pay are influenced by the importance each consumer gives to the certification. For all other drivers, consumers differentiate between labels, highlighting the importance of comparison between and knowledge about each of them, thereby aiding producers in choosing an appropriate marketing strategy.

    Adeline Alonso Ugaglia, Britta Niklas, Wolfram Rinke, Daniel Moscovici, Jeff Gow: Consumer preferences for Certified Wines in France: A Comparison of Sustainable Labels, Forthcoming in: Wine Economics and Policy (

  • 30-06-2021

    A New Journal Article by Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada

    AEJA new journal article by IEE member mein foto has just been published in the Atlantic Economic Journal:

    An Ode to ODA against all Odds? A Novel Game - Theoretical and Empirical Reappraisal of the Terrorism-Aid Nexus

    The present inquiry revisits the influence of the fourth religious wave of modern terrorism on the allocation of official development assistance (ODA). The theoretical framework is predicated first on comprehensive review of the pertinent literature on the nexus between political instability and foreign aid, augmented by the assessment of Central Intelligence Agency declassified documents and Congressional Service Reports. Based on the systematic review of the sources, the study puts forward a novel dynamic differential game theory model, which enables derivation of the scenarios for foreign aid allocation. The study finds that despite dominance of geopolitical and/or commercial interests in the allocation of aid, high incidence of terrorist attacks does not lead to less development aid, but rather catalyzes it. Subsequent empirical analysis of a dataset with 121 developing and transition economies spanning between 1970 and 2016 reveals that terrorism incidents, level of political rights, and the War on Terror had a statistically significant positive long-run and negative short-run effect on the level of foreign aid commitment of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development member states. The growth rate of foreign aid in the developing countries with a predominantly Muslim population has been systematically 0.1 to 0.85 percent greater than in non-Muslim countries. Subsequent assessment of the security bias in the allocation of aid indicates that re-securitization of aid since 1998 has led to weak diversion of aid commitment from areas with fewer terrorism incidents to jurisdictions with a greater frequency of terrorist attacks.

    in: Atlantic Economic Journal (2021). Online first:

  • 05-05-2021

    Dr. Sadik-Zada Published New Journal Article

    mein fotoSEPS coverIEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, together with Andrea Gatto, has just published a new journal article in Socio-Economic Planning Sciences:

    The puzzle of greenhouse gas footprints of oil abundance

    The present inquiry lays a groundwork for the analysis of the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of oil in the oil-abundant settings. To address the research question, the study puts forward a three-sector decision model, which provides a common ground for the assessment of the interaction of the structuralist and institutional factors influencing environmental pollution in the oil-reliant economies. The study shows that fossil-fuel abundance triggers forces, which induce diametrically opposed effects concerning atmospheric pollution. These are the rising carbon-intensive oil extraction and processing and fossil-fueled power generation versus shrinkage of the carbon-intensive manufacturing and growth of the low-carbon tertiarization. The theoretical analysis enables compartmentalization of the essential factors, which determine GHG emissions in the respective countries. To assess the significance of the proposed theoretical framework, the study employs multivariate panel co-integration techniques and two-stage fixed effects estimations for a dataset of 38 oil-producing countries for the time period between 1960 and 2018. In contrast to the existing literature, this study drives apart from the black box approaches that employ just one omnibus variable, per capita income.

    in: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Volume 75, 2021, 100936
    (URL providing 50 days' free access to the article:

  • 30-03-2021

    New Journal Article by IEE Member Dr. Raffael Beier

    BeierA new journal article by IEE member Dr. Raffael Beier has just been published in the "International Journal of Urban and Regional Research":

    From Visible Informality to Splintered Informalities. Reflections on the Production of ‘Formality’ in a Moroccan Housing Programme

    Increasingly, scholarly works challenge the formal/informal dichotomy, stressing the multiple political practices of producing informality which go beyond state incapacity. In contrast, this article addresses a lack of research concerning the production of ‘formal’ urban space through state‐led housing programmes. Deconstructing simplistic notions of state intentionality and incapacity, the article zooms in on competing interests and diverse resources, as well as the shifting power relations between multiple private, semi‐public and public actors which shape the production of ‘formality’. Focusing on a shantytown resettlement programme in Casablanca, the article differentiates between visible informality and splintered informalities. The former relates to the prevailing clear‐cut and stereotypical dichotomy between formal and informal urban space which underpins the state's objective of eliminating the visible informality attached to Morocco's shantytowns. The latter is the result of a messy process of ensuring housing affordability through the so‐called third‐party scheme—a sites‐and‐services project based on small‐scale private investment and land speculation—once this objective is achieved. Characterized by heterogeneous actor constellations, opportunism and flexible regulatory practices, the scheme has not only capitalized but also individualized urban space. Instead of building new formal housing, the scheme has produced splintered informalities and created new uncertainties and arbitrariness beyond the control of a single actor.

    in: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, online first:

  • 05-03-2021

    New Journal Article by IEE Members

    LoewensteinWmein fotoProf. Dr. Wilhelm Löwenstein and Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada, together with Andrea Gatto, have just published an article in the journal "Data in Brief":

    An extensive data set on energy, economy, environmental pollution and institutional quality in the petroleum-reliant developing and transition economies

    Petroleum-reliant developing and transition economies account for 15–20% of global greenhouse gas emissions. This group of countries have a disproportionately high share of oil and natural gas in their energy mix and a relatively high carbon footprint over their petroleum value chains. The present data set is an extensive compilation of the essential indicators related to economy, energy, environmental pollution, and institutional quality of 37 oil and gas producing developing and transition economies in the time interval spanning between 1989 and 2019. The data set can serve as a basis for the macroeconomic analysis of energy, environment, social and institutional issues in this group of countries and draft further industry explorations as well as sustainable development policy analyses and recommendations. Furthermore, based on the mentioned data series, we propose three novel indexes – i.e. Energy Sector Development Indexes I, II, and III. Those indexes are developed in the context of fossil fuel abundant settings. Despite focusing on the fossil fuel abundant settings, the Energy Sector Development Indexes could be expanded for petroleum and coal scarce countries as well.

    in: Data in Brief, Volume 35, April 2021, 106766 - online first:

  • 18-02-2021

    Thesis by Diotima Chattoraj Now Available in Print

    ChattorajChattoraj ThesisThe doctoral thesis of former IEE PhD student Diotima Chattoraj is now available in print:

    Displacement among Sri Lankan Tamil Migrants
    The Diasporic Search for Home in the Aftermath of War

    This book focuses on the concept of ‘home’ or ‘place of origin’ (expressed in Tamil as ‘Ur’) and its various dimensions, in turn related to issues of belonging, attachment, detachment, and commonality among the war-affected population in the post-war era of Sri Lanka. Little research has been undertaken on displacement and forced migration since the end of the war, and so this book provides new insight into the intersections between externally and internally displaced people and notions of home in relation to gender, age, caste and class. It excavates the roots of the problem of not being able to return due to combinations of uncertainty, unemployment, and the loss of people and property. The author shows that notions of ‘home’ vary considerably depending on multiple variables, and this is particularly pronounced between the different generations. The book also confronts how the migration from Sri Lanka over the border to India has brought on discernible changes to the lives of women in particular, in transforming their identities in multiple re-invented cultural manifestations, and cultivating a new kind of attachment towards their new homes. Interdisciplinary in tenor, this book will be of interest to scholars in development studies with a focus on South Asia, as well as graduate students and researchers in the fields of migration, conflict studies, Sri Lanka studies, and sociology. It may also have an impact on policymakers owing to its comprehensive, empirically-based analysis of the consequences of the Sri Lankan civil war for Tamils.

    Please find more information here:

  • 29-01-2021

    Blog Article by PhD Student Darina Pellowska

    2021 01 Pellowska BlogOn 28 January 2021, IEE's PhD Student Darina Pellowska published an article on the CHA (Centre for Humanitarian Action) blog (in German):

    Lokalisierung nach COVID-19 und Black Lives Matter"

    Trotz der Impulse aus der COVID-19-Response und der Black Lives Matter Bewegung geht die Lokalisierung der humanitären Hilfe weiterhin schleppend voran. Dieser Blog zeigt auf, wie agiles Management und eine Netzwerkperspektive helfen können, etablierte Governancestrukturen im humanitären Projektmanagement aufzubrechen und alle relevanten Akteursgruppen einzubinden.


  • 17-12-2020

    New Journal Article by Dr. Raffael Beier

    sub/urbanBeierA new journal article by IEE member Dr. Raffael Beier has just been published in "sub/urban":

    Ganz gewöhnliche Viertel - Stigma und Realitäten in Casablancas Slum Er-Rhamna

    Slums gelten als das Symbol der vermeintlich unterentwickelten und unkontrolliert wachsenden Megastädte des Globalen Südens. Die damit einhergehende Stigmatisierung von Slums hat nicht nur alltägliche Folgen für die Bewohner*innen, sondern hat spätestens im Zuge der Millennium-Entwicklungsziele auch zu einer Renaissance von Massenwohnungsbauprojekten, Verdrängungen und Umsiedlungen an den Stadtrand geführt. In Bezug auf Marokko zeigt der Artikel, inwieweit ein global verbreitetes, negatives Bild von Slums zu repressiven Wohnungspolitiken geführt hat. Aufbauend auf einer Haushaltsbefragung und qualitativen Interviews in einem sogenannten Slum in Casablanca dekonstruiert der Artikel bestehende Slum-Stigmata und zeigt, dass sich Slums nicht zwingend strukturell von anderen, gewöhnlichen Vierteln unterscheiden und maßgeblich durch Heterogenität gekennzeichnet sind. Als Konsequenz plädiert der Artikel dafür, Slums – analog zu Jennifer Robinsons Konzept der ordinary cities – als gewöhnliche Viertel zu bezeichnen und somit eine postkoloniale, empirisch-fundierte und vergleichend-analytische Sichtweise einzunehmen.

    In: sub\urban. zeitschrift für kritische stadtforschung, 8(3), S. 73–96. doi: 10.36900/suburban.v8i3.592. (full text via open access)

  • 30-11-2020

    Journal Article by PhD Student Om Ki

    OmAn article by IEE PhD student Om Ki was published in Myanmar Economic Bulletin:

    Agriculture Finance in Myanmar and Myanma Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    Notwithstanding enormous increases in agricultural loans to smallholder farmers by successive governments of Myanmar over the past decade, the cost of cultivating crops still significantly exceeds the subsidised loans granted by the State, and to which less than half of farm households have access. Exacerbating this State financing gap, is the lack of access to timely, affordable and dependable credit from formal financial institutions broadly, including private banks and microfinance institutions. As a consequence, Myanmar’s farmers are forced into borrowing (supplemental) loans from informal moneylenders at exorbitant rates of interest that range from 60 to 200 percent per annum, which (unsurprisingly) also chronically undermines the profitability, viability and sustainability of farm households.

    This study presents a short contextual background and concise investigation into agricultural finance in Myanmar through a historical perspective, followed by a brief analysis of lessons learned from international experience in reforming agricultural banks in Asia and Latin America. ...

    in: Myanmar Economic Bulletin, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 61-76 (full text online available)

  • 13-11-2020

    New Journal Article of PhD Student Biswaranjan Tripura

    SocialWorkWithGroups coverTripura BAn article of IEE PhD student Biswaranjan Tripura has just been published in the journal "Social Work with Groups" in their series "Group Work Stories on pandemic 2020":

    Forming an alumni association relief group to address the needs of Indigenous peoples in Tripura, India during the COVID-19 pandemic

    In this narrative essay, he reflects on the steps taken and challenges encountered in forming and meeting the goals of an alumni group aimed at supporting vulnerable indigenous communities in Tripura, India during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    in: Social Work with Groups, published online 31 Oct 2020 (

  • 03-11-2020

    New: Book Chapter by Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada

    mein fotoBookChapter Sadik ZadaIEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, together with Andrea Gatto, wrote a chapter for a new book:

    Energy Security Pathways in South East Europe:
    Diversification of the Natural Gas Supplies, Energy Transition,
    and Energy Futures

    This chapter explores the foreseeable repercussions of South East Europe (SEE) energy transition in terms of regional sustainability, resilience, vulnerability, and energy security. It examines enhancement of the natural gas pipelines in the framework of the Southern Gas Corridor, its broad ramifications for the SEE, as well as consequences for regional integration in energy security in the area. The chapter argues that natural gas will be relevant within the decarbonization pathway, coal-to-renewables transition, and energy security over the full transition toward a low-carbon economy. A moderate share of natural gas in the energy mix contributes to the robustness of the decarbonization strategy over the reduction of the growing electricity intermittency risk that emanates from the growing share of the renewables in the energy mix. Regardless of the undertaken landscape and energy mix, the decarbonization targets should not be subject to trade-offs with purely economic targets in the face of the short- to middle-term economic turmoils.

    in: Mišík M., Oravcová V. (eds) From Economic to Energy Transition. Energy, Climate and the Environment. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. pp. 491-514
    (first online:

  • 27-08-2019

    UA Ruhr Study on Development and Global Governance Vol. 73 Published

    uar studies 73 cover73. Jurek Seifert:
    Power and Horizontality in South-South Development Cooperation. The Case of Brazil and Mozambique.

    The growing importance of new actors in the global political landscape is envisaged as a phenomenon that has led to shifts in international power relations. This is reflected in development cooperation. Countries like China, Brazil, India and South Africa have enhanced their cooperation programs and present their development cooperation as South-South Development cooperation (SSDC) which takes place between countries of the 'Global South'. Both practitioners and scholars ascribe a notion of solidarity and horizontality to South-South cooperation that allegedly distinguishes it from the relationship patterns commonly associated with North-South relations. However, power constellations between the emerging powers and most of their cooperation partners are often asymmetrical. ...

    Please find the full abstract and more information here

  • 30-09-2020

    New Article by Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada

    mein fotoIEE member Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada just published a new journal article:

    Natural resources, technological progress, and economic modernization

    The present inquiry focuses on the modernization perspectives of the commodity‐exporting countries through the lens of development economics. To this end, the study adopts the Kaldorian framework to address the modernization effects, epitomized in the absorption of surplus labor. To trace the process of economic modernization, the study augments Lewis’s dualistic economy model by the extractive sector. Three different scenarios for the management of resource revenues are scrutinized. An altruistic mode, which implies a pure redistribution of the revenues among the poor swaths of the population, protracts the process of economic modernization, requires a greater amount of capital stock, and harbors a greater risk of a poverty trap. This effect is less pronounced if the modern sector is more capital‐intensive. A productive mode, which elicits full reinvestment of the commodity revenues, in contrast, accelerates the pace of economic modernization. Further, predicated on the scrutiny of a more realistic scenario, a bargaining mode, the study derives the condition for a net positive (or negative) modernization effect. The study identifies technical progress alongside capital accumulation as a further important source of economic modernization.

    in: Review of Development Economics, online first (

  • 06-08-2020

    Britta Niklas Published New Journal Article

    NiklasIEE member Britta Niklas, together with W. Rinke, published a new article in the "Journal of Wine Economics":

    Pricing Models for German Wine: Hedonic Regression vs. Machine Learning

    This article examines whether there are different hedonic price models for different German wines by grape variety, and identifies influential factors that focus on weather variables and direct and indirect quality measures for wine prices. A log linear regression model is first applied only for Riesling, and then machine learning is used to find hedonic price models for Riesling, Silvaner, Pinot Blanc, and Pinot Noir. Machine learning exhibits slightly greater explanatory power, suggests adding additional variables, and allows for a more detailed interpretation of results. Gault&Millau points are shown to have a significant positive impact on German wine prices. The log linear approach suggests a huge effect of different quality categories on the wine prices for Riesling with the highest price premiums for Auslese and “Beerenauslese/Trockenbeerenauslese/Eiswein (Batbaice),” while the machine learning model shows, that additionally the alcohol level has a positive effect on wines in the quality categories “QbA,” “Kabinett,” and “Spätlese,” and a mostly negative one in the categories “Auslese” and “Batbaice.” Weather variables exert different affects per grape variety, but all grape varieties have problems coping with rising maximum temperatures in the winter and with rising minimum and maximum temperatures in the harvest season.

    In: Journal of Wine Economics, 1-28. (online first: doi:10.1017/jwe.2020.16)

  • 04-08-2020

    New Journal Article by IEE Members

    mein fotoLoewensteinWIEE members Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada and Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Löwenstein published a new article in the journal "Energies":

    Drivers of CO2-Emissions in Fossil Fuel Abundant Settings: (Pooled) Mean Group and Nonparametric Panel Analyses

    The present inquiry addresses the income-environment relationship in oil-producing countries and scrutinizes the further drivers of atmospheric pollution in the respective settings. The existing literature that tests the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis within the framework of the black-box approaches provides only a bird’s-eye perspective on the long-run income-environment relationship. The aspiration behind this study is making the first step toward the disentanglement of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions, which could be employed in the pollution mitigation policies of this group of countries. Based on the combination of two strands of literature, the environmental Kuznets curve conjecture and the resource curse, the paper at hand proposes an augmented theoretical framework of this inquiry. To approach the research questions empirically, the study employs advanced panel cointegration techniques. To avoid econometric misspecification, the study also employs for the first time a nonparametric time-varying coefficient panel data estimator with fixed effects (NPFE) for the dataset of 37 oil-producing countries in the time interval spanning between 1989 and 2019. The empirical analysis identifies the level of per capita income, the magnitude of oil rents, the share of fossil fuel-based electricity generation in the energy mix, and the share of the manufacturing sector in GDP as essential drivers of carbon dioxide emissions in the oil-rich countries. Tertiarization, on the contrary, leads to a substantial reduction of emissions. Another striking result of this study is that level of political rights and civil liberties are negatively associated with per capita carbon emissions in this group of countries. Furthermore, the study decisively rejects an inverted U-shaped income-emission relationship and validates the monotonically or exponentially increasing impact of average income on carbon dioxide emissions.

    in: Energies 2020, 13, 3956. (Full text available here)

  • 15-07-2020

    New Book Article by Dr. Raffael Beier

    TheEverydayLifeOfUrbanInequalityBeierIEE member Dr. Raffael Beier, together with Cristiana Strava, published a new article:

    Losing or Gaining Home? Experiences of Resettlement from Casablanca’s Slums

    In 2004, Morocco’s king Mohammed VI launched the country-wide program Cities without Slums with the aim of eradicating all informal housing in the country and resettling slum dwellers into apartment blocks. In Casablanca’s working-class neighborhood Hay Mohammadi, the government evicted around 30,000 residents from Morocco’s oldest shantytown called Karyan Central and moved them to the new town Nouvelle Lahraouiyine, ten kilometers away. Treated with a uniform resettlement solution, affected shantytown dwellers have experienced very much individualized notions of displacement. By portraying different pathways to the new town, the authors argue that different life trajectories, local networks, and social status lead to varying perceptions of and expectations towards resettlement. Hence, standardized solutions in heterogeneous urban settings are likely to re-produce and re-frame urban inequalities.

    Raffael Beier and Cristiana Strava (2020) Losing or Gaining Home? Experiences of Resettlement from Casablanca’s Slums. In Angela D. Storey, Megan Sheehan & Jessica Bodoh-Creed (eds.) The Everyday Life of Urban Inequality: Ethnographic Case Studies of Global Cities, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, pp. 3-22.

    More information about the book here:

  • 15-06-2020

    Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada Published an Article in Post-Communist Economies

    PCEmein fotoIEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada published an article in the journal "Post-Communist Economies":

    Addressing the growth and employment effects of the extractive industries: white and black box illustrations from Kazakhstan

    This survey addresses production and employment effects, which emanate from the extractive industries of Kazakhstan. To this end, the study employs static input-output models (IOMs) of Kazakhstan for the years 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2017 and dynamic nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) models for the period 1995–2018. IOMs show that extractives in Kazakhstan exhibit relatively strong links to domestic manufacturing. NARDL estimators reveal a positive relationship between commodity revenues and manufacturing value added in the commodity revenue boom phase and a high level of resilience of Kazakh manufacturing to the downward movements of the commodity revenues. Commodity revenues have a statistically significant positive impact on the aggregate employment rate. The study does not detect asymmetries concerning the job creation effects of extractives in the manufacturing sector.

    First available online

  • 18-05-2020

    New Journal Article by Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada

    SustainabilitySadik ZadaIEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, together with Mattia Ferrari, published an article in the journal "Sustainability":

    Environmental Policy Stringency, Technical Progress and Pollution Haven Hypothesis

    The present inquiry provides a common ground for the analysis of two strands of literature, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH). To this end, the study sets out a simple variational model, which identifies the structural composition of the economy and the level of economic development as the primary determinants of the magnitude of the domestic environmental degradation. The juxtaposition of the mentioned literature strands undermines the optimistic view that economic growth, in the long run, leads to the reduction of atmospheric pollution. To assess the empirical validity of the pollution haven conjecture, the study employs the OECD Environmental Policy Stringency Index and the refined data on carbon emissions embodied in imports for the dataset of 26 OECD countries in the time interval between 1995 and 2011. By employing pooled mean group (PMG) estimators, the study, for the first time, accounts for a number of issues mentioned in the literature as factors that confine the inferential power of existing empirical studies on the EKC. The strong and robust confirmation of the pollution haven conjecture indicates that at least in the context of global common pool resources, a purely national perspective of the EKC is not satisfactory.

    More information and full text here:

  • 15-05-2020

    Dr. Raffael Beier Co-edited and Published in New Trialog Issue

    TRIALOG 135 cover 400x566Dr. Raffael Beier co-edited a special issue of "TRIALOG - A Journal for Planning and Building in a Global Context":

    TRIALOG 135 "Housing and Urban Redevelopment in the Maghreb",
    edited by Raffael Beier, Gerhard Kienast, Yassine Moustandiji and Sonja Nebel

    Since the turn of the millennium, Maghreb countries have experienced scores of ambitious housing and urban redevelopment projects of national as well as international scope. Housing programmes which attempted to address the chronic housing shortage through the construction of new towns and the implementation of resettlement and upgrading projects have exacerbated an urban sprawl that continues to put pressure on urban and peri-urban land. These dynamics have also triggered an aggressive competition for land between 'world-class' urban redevelopment projects and the politically undesired populations threatened by forced eviction. Thus, the relationship between the city centre and the periphery is shifting. While city centres are being beautified and renewed following global ‘world-class’ aspirations, thousands of citizens are being pushed to spatially disconnected new towns at the urban peripheries. In this issue of TRIALOG, we focus on these urban contrasts as evident in the Maghreb, and particularly visible in Morocco. They are representative of new urban realities in a region that struggles to cope with a volatile economic, political, and social context.

    More information here:

    He also published a new article in this journal:

    Resettlement and Persisting Informality in Casablanca.
    TRIALOG 135, 27-33.

    Based on a black-and-white understanding of formality/informality, many resettlement projects targeting dwellers of informal settlements include the issuing of formal ownership rights as a central element. While the state aims at integrating residents into formal property markets, residents themselves may consider access to housing with de jure security of tenure as a long-awaited recognition of citizenship. However, this paper provides empirical evidence questioning the implicit dichotomy of formality and informality behind such resettlement programmes. Discussing a specific sites-and-services project in Casablanca, Morocco, this paper shows how informality of tenure persists after resettlement and the related attempt to grant formal property rights to relocated residents. Being primarily concerned with the eradication of undesired, visible forms of informality, authorities have kept people in a legal limbo – an urban grey space that denies the full recognition of citizenship.

    You can find his full article text here: Casablanca

  • 11-12-2019

    IEE Member Co-Author of New Journal Article

    BeierDr. Raffael Beier and Amina Nolte (Justus-Liebig University, Giessen) just published a new journal article in Political Geography:

    Global aspirations and local (dis-)connections: A critical comparative perspective on tramway projects in Casablanca and Jerusalem

    This article puts emphasis on the political representation of tramway projects in Casablanca, Morocco, and Jerusalem, Israel/the Palestinian territories. In this paper, we discuss both tramway projects as flagships of national worlding strategies that try to promote the respective city on global markets of attention, competing for international investors and tourists. As such, they are majorly driven by national political interests, fostering the hegemonic position of the central state in cooperation with private actors. The tramways are aimed at portraying modernity as well as political and economic stability, while aspiring to a supposed international urban world-class. At the same time, governments frame tramways as tools to promote socio-urban integration and to improve local transport systems. However, the paper shows that although governments are eager to stress the integrative role of tramways, they continue with violent politics of urban exclusion at the same time. Thus, the integrative wording behind tramway planning has to be understood against political (and economic) pressures to regain political legitimacy in a moment of crisis - both domestically and internationally. Consequently, the paper uses interview data and applies methods of discourse analysis to shed light on the worlding of tramways and its ambivalent practices of symbolic inclusion and exclusion.

    in: Political Geography, Volume 78, April 2020, 102123 (

    More information here:

  • 09-12-2019

    "SDGs - Human Rights" Conference Proceedings Now Published

    2019 12 SDG HumanRightsProf. Dr. Markus Kaltenborn, member of the IEE directory board, just co-published (together with Markus Krajewski and Heike Kuhn) the conference proceedings:

    Sustainable Development Goals and Human Rights

    This open access book analyses the interplay of sustainable development and human rights from different perspectives including fight against poverty, health, gender equality, working conditions, climate change and the role of private actors. Each aspect is addressed from a more human rights-focused angle and a development-policy angle. This allows comparisons between the different approaches but also seeks to close gaps which would remain if only one perspective would be at the center of the discussions.

    Specifically, the book shows the strong connections between human rights and the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. Already the preamble of this document explicitly states that “the 17 Sustainable Development Goals ... seek to realise the human rights of all”. Moreover, several goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda correspond to already existing individual human rights obligations. The contributions of this volume therefore also address how the implementation of human rights and SDGs can reinforce each other, but also point to critical shortcomings of the different approaches.

    More information and open access available here.

    You can read also read a conference report in one of our former newsletters.

  • 29-11-2019

    New Journal Article by Britta Niklas and Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada

    NiklasSadik ZadaIEE members Britta Niklas and Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada worked together for the newly published journal article:

    Income Inequality and Status Symbols:
    The Case of Fine Wine Imports

    This survey investigates the inequality-fine wine imports nexus. To this end, the study employs cointegration techniques to analyze two panel datasets, one of which will analyze data from 12 countries between 1871 and 2018, and another that analyzes data from 66 countries between 1995 and 2017. Estimations indicate that income inequality leads to more fine wine imports in the long run. Changes in income have only a short-term effect on fine wine imports. Nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) estimators reveal an asymmetric long-run relationship between income inequality and fine wine imports in the cases of Argentina and the United States.

    in: Journal of Wine Economics 14(4), 365-372. doi:10.1017/jwe.2019.33 

  • 25-11-2019

    New Journal Article by PhD Student Britta Holzberg

    HolzbergBritta Holzberg, PhD student of the IEE, just published an article on Emerald Insight:

    Crossvergence of socially (ir)responsible employment practices in supplier firms: critical perspectives on international business

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notion of crossvergence from international human resource management (IHRM) as a conceptual lens for understanding and analyzing the formation of socially (ir)responsible employment practices in supplier firms in global production networks (GPNs). The crossvergence perspective can particularly contribute to understanding how the agency of suppliers is influenced by the interaction of global–local dynamics.

    The paper illustrates how the formation of socially (ir)responsible employment practices can be understood as a process of crossvergence. Subsequently, it reviews and structures insights from GPN and IHRM literature to detail the process.

    The paper underscores the complicated role of suppliers in ensuring decent work in GPNs. Suppliers face a multitude of global and local interacting, and partially conflicting, demands. They process these demands as active agents and need to develop suitable employment practices in response.

    The paper supports the nascent discourse on supplier agency in forming socially responsible employment practices. It connects different streams of literature to illuminate the perspective of suppliers, introduces IHRM insights to the debate and offers conceptual guidance for analyzing interacting global and local pressures on suppliers.

    Online first: (also here:

  • 12-11-2019

    Just Published Journal Article by IEE Members

    2019 11 economiesElkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, Wilhelm Loewenstein and Yadulla Hasanli:

    Commodity Revenues, Agricultural Sector and the Magnitude of Deindustrialization: A Novel Multisector Perspective

    This study puts forward a model of a multisector economy and embeds it in a novel theoretical framework to address the relationship between commodity revenues and manufacturing output with a special focus on the role of the agricultural sector. The three-sector model lays the groundwork for analyzing policy choices in more complex sectoral settings. Based on the theoretical analysis, the study identifies the weight of the individual economic sectors in the public revenue generation as a determinant of the magnitude of rent seeking epitomized in the crowding out effect of investments in manufacturing. We find that enclave agriculture contributes to the deindustrialization pressure in the face of natural resource windfalls. The central finding of the multisector analysis is the conclusion that not diversification per se but rather a diversification with the substantial domestic factor or market orientation has the capability to limit the magnitude of deindustrialization. For the empirical validation of the theoretical findings, the study employs fixed effects, fully modified OLS, dynamic common correlated effects estimators and dynamic fixed effects estimators for the dataset of 113 developing and transition economies for 1963–2014 period. The estimations reveal that natural resource revenues correspond with a higher level of the manufacturing sector output. In the economies with a low level of economic diversification, commodity bonanza leads however to the shrinkage of the manufacturing. In the commodity revenue dependent settings, nevertheless, agricultural sector exports have a negative impact on the performance of the manufacturing sector. These findings are in line with the predictions of the theoretical model.

    in: Economies 2019, 7(4), 113. Full text available as PDF file.

  • 30-10-2019

    Britta Niklas Contributing to AAWE Working Paper 244

    2019 10 AAWE wp244IEE staff member Britta Niklas contributed to the just published AAWE Working Paper 244:

    "Margins of Fair Trade Wines along the Supply Chain: Evidence from South African Wine on the U.S. Market" by Robin M. Back, Britta Niklas, Xinyang Liu, Karl Storchmann and Nick Vink.
    American Association of Wine Economists (AAWE) 2019, 34 pages.

    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze profit margins and mark-ups of Fair Trade (FT) wines sold in the United States. We are particularly interested in whether and to what extent the FT cost impulse in production is passed on along the supply chain. We draw on a limited sample of about 470 South African wines sold in Connecticut and New Jersey in the fall of 2016; about 90 of them are certified FT. For these wines we have FOB export prices, wholesale prices, and retail prices, which allows us to compute wholesale and retail margins and analyze the FT treatment effect. We run OLS, 2SLS and Propensity Score Matching models and find evidence of asymmetrical pricing behavior. While wholesalers seem to fully pass-through the FT cost effect, retailers appear to amplify the cost effect. As a result, at the retail level, FT wines yield significantly higher margins than their non-FT counterparts.

    The working paper is available online.

  • 21-10-2019

    Book Review by IEE Member

    Knoblich1IEE's research fellow Ruth Knoblich published a book review of
    'Knowledge and Global Power: Making New Sciences in the South' by Fran Collyer, Raewyn Connell, João Maia and Robert Morrell.
    Johannesburg, South Africa: Wits University Press, 2019. First published by Monash University Publishing, Clayton, Australia, 2018, 217 pp.

    in: European Journal of Risk Regulation (EJRR), Cambridge University Press, published 18 October 2019 (

  • 27-08-2019

    UA Ruhr Study on Development and Global Governance vol. 72 Published

    uar studies 72 cover72. Raffael Beier:
    From the City to the Desert – Analysing Shantytown Resettlement in Casablanca, Morocco, from Residents' Perspectives.

    In recent years, large-scale housing and resettlement projects have experienced a renaissance in many developing countries and are increasingly shaping new urban peripheries. One prominent example is Morocco's Villes Sans Bidonville (cities without shantytowns) programme that aims at eradicating all shantytowns in Morocco by resettling its population to apartment blocks at the urban peripheries. Analysing the specific resettlement project of Karyan Central, a 90-year-old shantytown in Casablanca, this book sheds light on both process and outcome of resettlement from the perspective of affected people. It draws on rich empirical data from a structure household survey (n=871), qualitative interviews with different stakeholder, document analysis, and non-participant observation gathered during four months of field research. ...

    Please find the full abstract and more information here

  • 13-08-2019

    IEE Working Paper vol. 213 just published

    Dr. Annika Engelbert and Prof. Dr. Markus Kaltenborn just published a new IEE Working Paper on

    Corruption and Social Rights Accountability

    Transnational criminal law treaties traditionally dominate the international anti-corruption regime; yet, corruption has not considerably decreased since their coming into force. It therefore seems appropriate to broaden the legal perspective: Corruption as a threat to welfare, safety, and physical integrity of the individual can be conceptualized as a human rights violation. This paper argues that it is possible indeed to establish causal links between the misallocation of public funds, including budget distortions and underfunding of anti-corruption institutions, and a structural infringement of social human rights. We present several human rights instruments suitable to combat corruption with regard to social rights realization. In particular, we assess the capacity of public interest litigation, as well as related contextual legal and political conditions for the case of Kenya. With its new Bill of Rights, Kenya has great potential to spearhead a progressive impact litigation strategy targeting corruption-induced social rights infringements.

    Download here

  • 02-08-2019

    New Journal Article by IEE Members

    2019 08 MineralEconomicsElkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, Wilhelm Loewenstein, and Yadulla Hasanli:

    Production linkages and dynamic fiscal employment effects of the extractive industries: input-output and nonlinear ARDL analyses of Azerbaijani economy

    In this paper, we address the production linkages and employment effects of the petroleum sector on the rest of the Azerbaijani economy. The availability of the input-output tables for the years 2006, 2008, and 2009 enables the assessment of the changes with regard to the multiplier effects of the extractive industries over the first 3 years of the oil boom. We find that despite advanced infrastructure, well-developed petrochemical complex, and local content policies, the degree of integration of the international oil and gas business into the domestic economy is rather weak. In addition, both production and job creation multipliers slightly decreased after 3 years of exponential growth rates of oil production. The assessment of the production multipliers indicates that additional investments in processing, construction, and network industries have the highest production linkages. Concerning employment multipliers agriculture, education, health care, and public sector have the greatest job creation effects. To assess the fiscal employment effects of the oil revenues, which cannot be captured over the static input-output analysis, we employ the cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model. The model reveals a sustainable job creation effect of oil revenues in the case of Azerbaijan.

    In: Mineral Economics (first published online)

  • 26-07-2019

    New Publication by Dr. Raffael Beier

    BeierIEE member Dr. Raffael Beier has just published a new article:

    The world-class city comes by tramway: Reframing Casablanca’s urban peripheries through public transport

    Although framed as projects targeting the improvement of public transport, the reduction of traffic congestion and the integration of urban peripheries, tramways are often inscribed to political ambitions of modernisation and urban renewal. As such, Morocco’s tramway projects constitute a distinct feature of national urban worlding ambitions promoting ‘world-class’ cities. Likewise, Casablanca’s tramway is closely entangled with political discourses on the urban integration of politically marginalised working-class neighbourhoods. However, this article sees the tramway as a symbol and driving force of a new distinction of the urban peripheries of Casablanca – separating it into ‘old’ and ‘new’, desired and undesired population groups. On the one hand, the tramway has fostered the incorporation of the traditional working-class neighbourhoods – the old peripheries – into Casablanca’s urban ‘world-class’ project. On the other hand, the tramway is the flagship of urban renaissance policies that have pushed stigmatised street vendors and shantytown dwellers from the working-class neighbourhoods to isolated new towns – the emerging ‘new’ peripheries. Here they are kept – spatially and discursively – outside the ‘world-class’ city, largely dependent on inadequate, costly and insecure urban public transport. These dynamics not only conflict with the tramway’s objectives to decrease traffic congestion and to promote socio-spatial integration, they also show the power of urban worlding projects to reframe urban marginality and to define who does (and who does not) have access to the ‘world-class’ city.

    In: Urban Studies 57(9), 1827-1844. (more information)

  • 23-07-2019

    New UA Ruhr Study on Development and Global Governance

    uar studies 71 coverVol. 71: Casper Boongaling Agaton:
    A Real Options Approach to Renewable and Nuclear Energy Investments in the Philippines.
    This book presents the application of real options approach (ROA) to analyze investment decisions for switching energy sources from fossil fuels to alternative energy. Using the Philippines as a case, the ROA models presented here explore how uncertainties including fossil fuel prices, electricity prices, discount rates, externality, renewable energy (RE) costs, and RE investment growth affect investment decisions that focus on developing countries, particularly to fossil-importing countries. ...

    Please find the full abstract and more information here

  • 26-06-2019

    New Journal Article by Dr. Raffael Beier

    BeierIEE member Dr. Raffael Beier just published a journal article in Middle East - Topics & Arguments (META), 12 (2019), pp. 28 - 34:

    Worlding Cities in the Middle East and North Africa – Arguments for a Conceptual Turn

    This article suggest analyzing megaprojects in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as worlding practices, hence, as a way to influence emerging countries’ own status of being in the world. This analytical lens differs from traditional perspectives that have tried to identify regional particularities such as the influence of Gulf countries and an authoritarian way of planning. Seeing megaprojects as worlding aspirations, instead, helps to see them embedded in a wider global context, stressing the post-colonial and developmental dimension of this significant planning trend. It further allows emphasizing interactions with other urban policies such as slum resettlement.

    More information and full text download here

  • 17-06-2019

    New Journal Article by Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada

    Sadik ZadaDistributional Bargaining and the Speed of Structural Change in the Petroleum Exporting Labor Surplus Economies
    by Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada
    in: The European Journal of Development Research, pp 1-48

    The paper embeds the distributional bargaining concept in the labor surplus economy setting. In the petroleum-abundant labor surplus economies, distributional bargaining comes into its own, mainly over the subsidization of the large swaths of the population working in the sectors with substantial amounts of disguised unemployment. These are primarily the subsistence agriculture and the public sector. The open-loop noncooperative differential game model yields three feasible bargaining equilibria, whereby only the antagonistic and the allocation modes are compatible with the setting of inferior institutional quality that dominates most natural-resource-dependent countries. Both modes have been scrutinized in the context of a developing dual economy model and show that political bargaining in the allocation mode unambiguously protracts the process of economic modernization. The outcome of the antagonistic mode for the process of structural change depends on the magnitude of the labor cost increase in this phase. To assess the bargaining–modernization nexus empirically, the author employs the (Pooled) Mean Group and Dynamic Fixed Effects estimators for panel datasets spanning the years 1990–2016 for 21 oil-producing countries and the System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimators for a panel with 82 countries. We find that the revenues generated from exports of natural resources have a positive long-run impact on the economic modernization. Consistent with our theoretical model, the interaction of the authoritarian regime type with the natural resource wealth has a robust negative impact on the indicators of economic modernization.

    First online, full text here

  • 07-05-2019

    FEEM Working Paper by Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada and Andrea Gatto

    Sadik ZadaIEE member Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada and Andrea Gatto from the Department of Economic & Legal Studies (DISEG, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope) collaborated for a working paper, published by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) in the Economic Theory series (ed. by Matteo Manera):

    Determinants of the Public Debt and the Role of the Natural Resources: A Cross-Country Analysis

    This paper investigates the major drivers of the public debt growth in 184 countries. The underlying cross-country survey is conducted on the basis of the improved compilation of datasets on the central government debt for 2013. The study finds that oil abundance, economic growth rate, the share of mineral rent in the total revenue and interest rate payments for foreign borrowings have statistically significant impact on the growth of the public debt. In contrast, defence spending, unemployment rate, and inflation rate do not have a statistically significant impact on the public debt rate. Being a developing country has a statistically significant negative impact on the level of the central government debt.

    FEEM Working Paper 4.2019, ET series, March 2019 (downloadable here)

  • 21-01-2019

    New Journal Article by Anne Siebert

    SiebertIEE member Anne Siebert just published a new journal artice:

    Transforming urban food systems in South Africa: unfolding food sovereignty in the city. In: The Journal of Peasant Studies (online first)

    This paper illuminates how urban food producers contribute to the construction of food sovereignty in less-expected urban settings in the Global South. In South Africa, jobless de-agrarianisation, apartheid legacy, and rapid food price inflation are shaping the realities of marginalised urban inhabitants. Urban food movements have been critically observing these developments and have begun to raise their voices against social inequality. In this way, they offer a fertile ground to put food sovereignty into practice. While food sovereignty has become a globalised vision, it has been adapted in specific contexts to address issues ranging from the struggle against corporate power to self-determination in the agri-food system. Drawing on research conducted on an urban agriculture movement in George, Western Cape, this contribution provides a sketch of the way people propose alternative visions about the organisation of food and land grounded in everyday life.

    More information here

  • 12-11-2018

    New Article by PhD Student Amr Khafagy

    KhafagyPhD student Amr Khafagy just published a new article in the Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics:

    Finance, Distribution and the Economic Objective of Financial Cooperative Institutions

    This paper proposes a model where the structure rather than the size of the financial sector explains its influence on income distribution. Because of information asymmetries, a financial sector dominated solely by profit‐maximizing financial intermediaries will increase income and wealth inequality as it gives preferential access to credit for high‐income agents, whereas a diversified inclusive financial sector with alternative models of finance, like cooperatives, will reduce the inequality gap. No full convergence in income distribution can be realized through finance only and there is still a need for redistribution policies. Accordingly, an objective function for cooperative financial institutions should define a desired pricing behaviour that can increase the income of members at a rate higher than the average growth rate of the economy.

    More information

  • 12-11-2018

    New Journal Article by PhD student Mariana Vilmondes Türke

    VilmondesIEE PhD student Mariana Vilmondes Türke just published a new journal article in Revista de Direito Internacional, v. 15, n. 2:

    Business and Human Rights in Brazil: Exploring Human Rights Due Diligence and Operational-Level Grievance Mechanisms in the Case of Kinross Paracatu Gold Mine

    This legal study explores the case of Kinross gold mine in Paracatu, Brazil, and the corporate responsibility to respect human rights. In the past decades, enterprises have been looking after more responsible social-environmental practices by designing their bylaws in compliance to the Guiding Principles on Business and Human rights and other national requirements. This paper sheds light specifically on the design of the firm’s due diligence practices and operational-level grievance mechanisms. If, on the one hand, Kinross shows policy commitment to applicable norms, on the other hand, local communities still claim to be impacted by health, infrastructural and environmental damages. In such a contentious situation, the biggest matter lies on the inability of affected stakeholders to seek redress and of the firm, to manage its own policy. Looking at the realization of human rights and at more respectful business-community relations, this article highlights means of improving the enterprise’s legal mechanisms and other possible causes of inefficacy that affect the firm’s ability to respect human rights.

    Full text downloadable here

  • 12-11-2018

    New Journal Article of Former PhD Student Themba Nyasulu

    NyasuluFormer PhD student Themba Nyasulu has just published a journal article in the International Journal of Economic Development (IJED), Vol. 12(1), pp. 82-107:

    Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in the Southern African Development Community (SADC): The Role of Human Capital

    The relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth has received considerable empirical attention in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) but the role that human capital plays in this nexus is not well-understood. This is despite economic theory firmly suggesting that human capital plays a pivotal role in fostering the adoption of superior foreign technologies and enhancing the spillover benefits (learning-by-doing) that emanate from inward FDI in host countries. Against this background, therefore, the paper utilizes the Mankiw-Romer-Weil growth model in examining linkages between human capital (in form of education), FDI and economic growth in 15 SADC countries. After running cross-country regressions on data covering the period 1990-2015, human capital is found to positively influence the size and significance of the FDI-effect on economic growth in SADC. This suggests that SADC countries should continue upgrading the quality and quantity of their education in order to maximize FDI-induced development.

    Full text for download

  • 18-10-2018

    Two IEE Members contributed to a New Urban Food Plus Publication

    DittrichNicole Dittrich and Christina Seeger contributed to a new publication for Urban Food Plus:

    Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in Bamenda: A Policy Narrative
    by D. Bertrand Njoh, T. Feldt, C. Seeger, N. Dittrich, H. Karg, E. Gawum, A. Witte, R. van Veenhuizen.

    Increasingly people live in cities. Currently more than half of the population lives in urban areas, and it is predicted that by 2050, this will be over 75%. This urbanisation is a major driver of unsustainable transformation of urban rural relations and food systems.  Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) links and interlinks a wide variety of urban issues and development objectives. Different stakeholders (local assemblies, NGOs, the (formal and informal) private sector and urban farmers, traders, consumers) are involved, while a range of policies and regulations address urban farming directly or indirectly.

    This policy narrative provides information on the situation and role of UPA in Bamenda, in the North West region of Cameroon. It has been developed through the collaborative effort of researchers of the UrbanFoodPlus project and the project partner organisations SHUMAS and RUAF, together with the key stakeholders from Bamenda including Bamenda Central City Authority (BCCA), several ministries, universities, farmer cooperatives, civil society organisations and local media. (...)

    Please download the full text here

  • 10-09-2018

    New IEE Working Paper

    GerharzProf. Dr. Eva Gerharz, member of the IEE directory board, just published a new IEE Working Paper:

    The Interface Approach

    The interface approach is especially well suited to understanding the specific conditions and processes in  development cooperation. Therefore, it has been mainly adopted in development studies, particularly in the field of development sociology. In order to gain an understanding of this approach and the theories behind  it, the first part of this paper introduces the essential theoretical premises and their methodological significance. In the second part, a case from the author's fieldwork in Northern Sri Lanka is used to illustrate how a research design can be developed using the interface approach, and how one might analyse the collected data.

    The paper can be downloaded here.

  • 03-09-2018

    New Article by Raffael Beier in Welt-Sichten Dossier

    BeierIEE member Raffael Beier just published an article in Welt-Sichten Dossier 9-2018, pp. 16-17:

    Zwischen Rebellion und Global City: Stadtentwicklung in Marokko

    Im Königreich Marokko ist Nachhaltigkeit ein Modewort der Stadtplanung geworden - zumeist jedoch beschränkt auf Umweltaspekte. Wesentliche Stadtplanerische Leitlinien gibt König Mohammed VI. vor, Kommunen müssen umsetzen, Bürgerinnen und Bürgern bleibt bisher wenig Einfluss. (...)

    The whole article can be read in Welt-Sichten Dossier 9-2018, downloadable here

  • 28-08-2018

    New Journal Article by Two IEE Members

    FritzscheBeierJasmin Fritzsche-El Shewy and Raffael Beier just published an article in Z’Flucht – The German Journal for Refugee Studies 2(1), 128-142:

    UN-Habitat, the New Urban Agenda and Urban Refugees – A State of the Art.

    In recent years, policy documents of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) have increasingly focused on urban refugees. We argue in this article that the discussion on urban refugees should not only draw on expertise in forced migration studies, but also systematically involve perspectives from urban studies. Therefore, we analyse the New Urban Agenda and the way the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) has dealt with refugees based on their experience in urban development. Finally, we argue that an intensified discussion between urban and forced migration studies offers the opportunity to advance research and practices directed at refugees living in urban areas.

    More information here

  • 12-06-2018

    New Journal Article by Raffael Beier

    BeierIEE member Raffael Beier just published an article in "City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action", Vol. 22, No. 2, pages 220-235:

    Towards a New Perspective on the Role of the City in Social Movements. Urban Policy after the 'Arab Spring'

    Cities were at the centre of the ‘Arab Spring’, but did they play a decisive role or were they just the passive settings in which these uprisings took place? This paper develops a new way of understanding the role of the city in social movements by looking at changes and continuities in urban policy in North Africa after the ‘Arab Spring’. The paper’s main argument is that the role of the city in social movements can be understood through an analysis of governments’ urban policy responses to those movements. First, it shows that North African urban policy has always reacted sensitively to social unrest and that neoliberal planning schemes have even strengthened this sensitivity. Second, the paper provides an empirical comparative analysis of urban policy in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia after the ‘Arab Spring’. The study shows that public authorities give pivotal attention to public space and to informal settlements as they have been stigmatised as breeding grounds of social unrest and as a threat to the political establishment.

  • 25-04-2018

    New Journal Article by Diotima Chattoraj

    ChattorajFormer IEE PhD student Diotima Chattoraj recently published an article that was part of her PhD work in eTropic Vol. 17 No. 1 (2018):

    Experiences of Sri Lankan Tamils Displaced to Colombo: Three Narratives

    This paper focuses on the experiences, challenges and aspirations of three middle-aged Sri Lankan Tamil Displaced persons in Colombo who are reluctant to return to their places of origin in the northern provinces of Sri Lanka due to several personal and professional reasons. The paper aims to analyze the diverse experiences they faced due to displacement. It also uncovers strategies used to cope in a new city and portrays the differences they experience between the places they came from and the city they now live in. The empirical point of departure has been drawn from the stories of three middle-aged Sri Lankan Tamil Displaced persons in Colombo. The paper argues that they have adapted to their place of displacement and view the city as a more suitable place to live compared to their places of origin. In addition, they also identify displacement as a blessing in disguise as they believe integrating in Colombo helped them to aspire to a better future which would have never been possible in their places of origin. Thus, this paper provides a picture of how they have reconstructed their lives in Colombo and how this has led them to reconsider and renegotiate their relationship to their 'homes'.

    More info and full-text PDF here.

  • 19-04-2018

    New Blog Article by Ruth Knoblich and Dr. Tobias Schonwetter

    Knoblich12018 04 publ SchonwetterIEE member Ruth Knoblich and Dr. Tobias Schonwetter from the Intellectual Property (IP) Unit, University of Cape Town, South Africa, published together a blog article on the IP Unit's blog-website:

    Rising Middle-IP Powers dissolving the North/South polarization in the international IP system

    The post focuses on rising economies such as Brazil, India, China, and South Africa as middle-IP powers. These countries ermerge as a cross-cutting group of players in the international IP system that may help to dissolve the North/South polarisation in the international IP order. Huge investments in R&D, growing innovation capabilities and a strong dependency on cutting-edge technology and knowledge from foreign countries make them share some interests with developed countries on the one hand. On the other hand, there is a set of conditions they share with other developing countries in the global South. The rise of these 'middle-IP powers' is a major opportunity for developing and enhancing the international IP system as they can help recalibrate the balance between IP rights and their access-oriented limitations, or, put differently, between the private and the public interest.

    This article is the first in a series on rising middle-IP powers, particularly focusing on South Africa as a BRICS member country and a political and economic heavy weight on the African continent. It sheds light on the interests and mechanisms in protecting IP, mirrors current debates on IP reform, and traces the growing influence of these new actors in the realm of international IP law and policy making.

    Link to the article

  • 12-04-2018

    New Journal Article by Prof. Löwenstein and Dr. Sadik-Zada

    LoewensteinWSadik ZadaProf. Dr. Wilhelm Löwenstein and Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada published together an article in the International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Volume 8, No.2 (pp. 196-204):

    A Note on Revenue Distribution Patterns and Rent-Seeking Incentive

    This paper presents a simple model of rent-seeking incentive to explain the emergence and dominance of the rapacious rent-seeking policies in a number of oil abundant developing and transition economies. The Hubbertian distribution of the commodity exports over time, the magnitude of these revenues, and the availability of offshore havens for the illicitly appropriated rent explain the shift from productive public policies to rapacious rent-seeking. In addition, we show that the existence of the well-functioning democratic institutions prior to the revenue boom precludes the emergence of rapacious rent-seeking institutions due to prohibitively high costs of rent-seeking. The paper complements the existing literature by delivering a novel theoretical rationale for the predisposition of the oil-rich countries to the resource curse.

    Link: (with full-text PDF)

  • 10-04-2018

    New Article by Raffael Beier

    BeierIEE member Raffael Beier published an article "Social Movements as Drivers of Urban Policy: The Case of the Arab Uprisings in North Africa" in "Schoch, Aline and Reto Bürgin (eds.), Urbane Widerstände – Urban Resistance. Peter Lang: Bern" (pp. 63-78).

    Inspired by the Arab Spring, a growing number of protest movements – from Occupy Wall Street to the Gezi-Park movement – have recently rediscovered the city. Although it is disputed in how far these urban resistances address the ‘urban’, they are likely to influence urban policy. With focus on the Arab uprisings, this paper puts emphasis on the nexus between resistance and control. It asks in how far and to which extent authorities in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia have readjusted their urban policies in response to the Arab uprisings since 2011. By doing so, it underlines the historic importance of social movements as drivers of urban policy.

    More information on the book here.

  • 15-02-2018

    New Journal Article on Privatization in the Latin American Power Sector

    LoewensteinWSadik ZadaTwo IEE members, Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Löwenstein, Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, and a former RUB student and currently European Investment Fund and CED fellow Mattia Ferrari published together an article in the International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Volume 8, No.1 (pp. 95-103):

    Privatization and the Role of Sub-National Governments in the Latin American Power Sector: A Plea for less Subsidiarity?

    In this paper, they explore the cross-national impact of privatization in the network industries on the access to network services. They focus on the assessment of the electricity sector in 20 Latin American countries and analyze the time series between 1985 and 2010. To control for the relevance of the subsidiarity (social commons) argument they assess the interaction between commodification and the role of the sub-national governments in the power sector. Privatization has a statistically significant positive effect on the level of electricity access. In the absence of federalism, privatization in the electricity sector has a greater impact on electrification than is the case with federalist government system. Federalism has a positive impact on the electricity access if electricity is generated and supplied mainly by the state-owned enterprises. Another interesting finding is the relationship between the degree of subsidiarity and electrification: A higher degree of subsidiarity has a negative effect on the electrification. This could be a result of the increasing transaction costs and rent-seeking behavior in the decentralized settings. The study complements the existing literature by analyzing the privatization reform from the subsidiarity perspective

    Link: (with full-text PDF)

  • 12-01-2018

    Two New Journal Articles by Britta Niklas

    IEE member Britta Niklas published two articles (one as a co-author) in the Journal of Wine Economics, Volume 12/2017, No. 4:

    2018 01 JournalofWineEconomicsBritta Niklas: Impact of Annual Weather Fluctuations on Wine Production in Germany (pages 436 - 445):

    This paper analyzes the impact of annual weather fluctuations on the total output of wine and on the share of output of different wine-quality categories in Germany, using a set of wine data from all thirteen German wine regions and daily weather data taken from regional weather stations. The empirical analysis suggests that rising average temperatures have a significantly positive impact on the total output of wine as well as on the output shares of wine in higher- quality categories. The number of freezing days appears to be detrimental to overall produc- tion; precipitation during the growing season impairs higher-quality wines in particular. (JEL Classifications: Q21, Q13)

    Britta Niklas, Karl Storchmann & Nick Vink: Fairtrade Wine Price Dispersion in the United Kingdom (pages 446 - 456):

    This paper analyzes wine price dispersion in the United Kingdom. In particular, we are inter- ested in examining whether Fairtrade wines are different from non-Fairtrade wines. Because Fairtrade wines serve an additional social purpose, one may think that consumers search less aggressively for the outlet with the lowest price, thus allowing for a larger price dispersion than for regular wines. We draw on data for about seven thousand wines from South Africa, Fairtrade and non-Fairtrade, sold in the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2012. In a first step, we run a hedonic regression model explaining the wine prices using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) Instrumental Variable (IV) approaches. In the next step, we regress the squared residuals from the first step on a Fairtrade 0-1 dummy-variable. When using the squared residuals from the OLS model, we find that Fairtrade is a negative determinant of price dispersion. Therefore, Fairtrade wines exhibit a sig- nificant lower price dispersion than the comparison group. When using the squared residuals from the IV model, we find mixed results and suspect the presence of a substantial bias due to weak instruments. Finally, in order to avoid IV pitfalls, we ran Fairtrade and Non- Fairtrade wines in separate equations. We find support for the OLS results, i.e., Fairtrade wines appear to exhibit lower price dispersion than their non-Fairtrade counterparts. Whether this is due to consumer search is a priori unclear. (JEL Classifications: L31, L81, Q11)

    more information

  • 04-10-2017

    New Journal Article by PhD student Amr Khafagy

    KhafagyAn article of IEE PhD student Amr Khafagy: "Regulation, supervision and deposit insurance for financial cooperatives: an empirical investigation" has been published in the Annals of Finance (online first)

    This paper analyses the impact of different regulation and supervision approaches, as well as deposit insurance schemes, on the development of financial cooperatives in developing countries, using random and fixed effects estimators. Information on laws regulating financial cooperatives, the supervisory approaches adopted, and deposit insurance schemes in sixty-five developing countries were collected—mostly—from original legislations for the period 1995–2014. Key findings suggest that indicators of financial cooperative development are positively correlated with the existence of a specialized regulation; supervision under non-bank financial supervisory authorities; and the presence of deposit insurance schemes, while general cooperative society’s regulations and banking regulations are negatively correlated with financial cooperatives’ indicators. These results are robust after controlling for economic and institutional factors as well as potential endogeneity bias.

    Keywords: Financial regulations Financial supervision Financial cooperatives Deposit insurance

    Khafagy, Amr (2017) "Regulation, supervision and deposit insurance for financial cooperatives: an empirical investigation" In: Annals of Finance (online first)

  • 23-06-2017

    Paper on Refugees and the New Urban Agenda

    BeierFritzscheTwo Cluster 2 members, Raffael Beier and Jasmin Fritzsche, published together a short, peer-reviewed paper in the special issue "Shelter in Displacement" of Forced Migration Review (55, June 2017). The article is titled "Refugees and the city: UN-Habitat’s New Urban Agenda" and calls for special protection for refugees and displaced persons as part of countries’ housing policies (full text)

  • 02-05-2017

    New Journal Article by PhD student Themba Nyasulu

    An article of IEE Phd student Themba Nyasulu: "Harnessing Economic Impacts of Migrant Remittances for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Critical Review of the Literature" has been published in the African Human Mobility Review (AHMR).

    The recent rise in migrant remittances across Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the important issues currently dominating economic policy discourse in the region. Given the large volume of remittance flows, it is obvious that they have important positive and negative economic effects on the individual families and economies that receive them. Therefore, this paper critically examines channels through which remittance transfers affect microeconomic and macroeconomic activity, and suggests policy options available to Sub-Saharan African countries in terms of harnessing their development potential. The paper affirms that prospects for remittances to facilitate economic development remain high provided that recipient countries put in place institutional frameworks capable of mitigating the malign effects and enhancing the benign effects of remittances.

    Keywords:  migrant remittances, microeconomic impacts, economic development, Sub-Saharan Africa

    Nyasulu, Themba (2017) "Harnessing Economic Impacts of Migrant Remittances for Development: A Critical Review of the Literature", African Human Mobility Review (AHMR) Vol. 3(1) 1 January-April, pp.645-670 (full text available at:

  • 28-04-2017

    Dr. Annika Engelbert Published Her Doctoral Thesis

    Engelbert ThesisAnnika Engelbert: Public Procurement Law in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Means to Curb Corruption?

    Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2017. - 289 S. - ISBN 978-3-8487-4026-0
    (Recht und Verfassung in Afrika – Law and Constitution in Africa, Vol. 31)

    Public procurement is a core government activity that is highly prone to corruption. Why, despite joint efforts of national governments and the international donor community to strengthen statutory frameworks, are public procurement systems in Sub-Saharan Africa still insufficiently equipped to prevent corruption? It is the purpose of the book to advance Law and Development research by (a) assessing the effectiveness of institutional means to curb procurement-related corruption in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda; (b) treating law as a means to foster development, and (c) applying qualitative research methods to establish causal mechanisms between law and the social phenomenon of corruption. The book shows that while procurement systems are on paper well suited to serve as anti-corruption instruments, implementation gaps are significant; thus, 'law in books' and 'law in action' differ to a large extent. The reasons are unearthed on the political, institutional, and individual level.

    See info at Nomos

  • 07-04-2017

    New Journal Article by Raffael Beier

    Raffael Beier: Tunis und Casablanca - Stadtentwicklungspolitiken zwischen "Worlding" und Sozialverträglichkeit, in: inamo 89, Informationsprojekt Naher und Mittlerer Osten, Jg. 23, Frühling 2017, S. 24-28

    2011 gerieten die arabischen Städte als Orte der Revolte in den Fokus der Weltöffentlichkeit. Dieser Artikel widmet sich dem engen Verhältnis von Stadt und Protest und fragt, inwiefern die Stadtentwicklungspolitik in Tunis und Casablanca auf den Arabischen Frühling reagiert hat. Neben Versuchen der strukturellen Erneuerung der Stadtentwicklungspolitik in Tunesien und steigender Bedeutung der sicherheits- und stabilitätspolitischen Dimension in der Stadtplanung sind zuletzt verstärkt Kontinuitäten, insbesondere im Hinblick auf den Bau von Großprojekten, zu beobachten.

  • 03-04-2017

    New Book published by Ruth Knoblich

    Ruth Knoblich, IEE research fellow, and current visiting researcher at the Intellectual Property (IP) Unit, University of Cape Town, published a book on global power shifts in the international IP regime, analyzing the interests, strategies, and influence of Brazil, India, and China.

    9783658037246"Die globale Regulierung geistiger Eigentumsrechte. Interessen, Strategien und Einfluss Brasiliens, Indiens und Chinas"

    Angesichts des Aufstiegs von Staaten wie Brasilien, Indien und China zu neuen Wissensmächten fragt das Buch nach den Konsequenzen, die diese Dynamik für die globale Regulierung geistiger Eigentumsrechte mit sich bringen könnte und prüft entlang des Fallbeispiels 'Zugangsregelungen zu genetischen Ressourcen und dem Schutz traditionellen Wissens' den Einfluss der BIC-Staaten auf das bestehende internationale Schutzsystem.

    The book can be found here, via Springer Link.

  • 30-01-2017

    New Article by Johannes Norpoth

    Johannes Norpoth: The Mutually Agreed Solution (MAS) between Indonesia and the United States (US) in US – Clove Cigarettes: A Case of Efficient Breach (or Power Politics)?

    The MAS to the US – Clove Cigarettes case between the US and Indonesia evokes the idea of the WTO dispute settlement system (DSS) allowing for efficient breach since the case was declared settled based on mutual commitments of the two parties, while the original violation by the US remains in place. The paper first discusses whether MAS are a means through which WTO law allows such flexibility, concluding that such a view is tenable despite valid objections. Then, it inquires whether the MAS found between Indonesia and the US can be considered as a situation of efficient breach. In this context, the paper analyses the mutual commitments of the US and Indonesia with specific attention to the potential role of power in the settlement. The paper argues that from a legal perspective the MAS between Indonesia and the US cannot be considered a case of efficient breach, although politically the situation established through the MAS resembles a situation of efficient breach. The paper finds that power imbalances played a role in the settlement and suggests that the case study of this specific MAS highlights systemic risks in the current handling of WTO dispute settlement through MAS.

    2017-01 NorpothJohannes Norpoth, The Mutually Agreed Solution (MAS) between Indonesia and the United States (US) in US – Clove Cigarettes: A Case of Efficient Breach (or Power Politics)?, in: Adinolfi, G., Baetens, F., Caiado, J., Lupone, A., Micara, A.G. (Eds.), International Economic Law - Contemporary Issues, Springer 2017, pp. 129-147

    available as E-Book (ISBN 978-3-319-44645-5) and Hardcover (ISBN 978-3-319-44644-8) - more info at

  • 17-11-2016

    Three new UA Ruhr Studies on Development and Global Governance

    uar-studies-68 coverVol. 68: Annika Engelbert, Markus Kaltenborn, and Nina-Annette Reit-Born:
    Effective Corruption Ccontrol. Supplier remedies in public procurement in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania - A comparative analysis of mechanisms and their implementation.
    This book presents the results of a three-year research project based at the Ruhr-University Bochum, financed by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation, Cologne. Corruption in public procurement is widespread and particularly damaging to development objectives, as it undermines any state's duty to maximize the social and economic welfare of its citizens. Yet, research on country-specific regulation meant to address this problem has remained scarce. ...

    uar-studies-69 coverVol. 69: Stefan Buchholz:
    Dimensionen und Bestimmungsfaktoren der HIV/AIDS-bezogenen Stigmatisierung in der Republik Südafrika: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung unter Studenten in der Metropolregion Kapstadt.
    Stigmatisierungsprozesse gegenüber Menschen mit HIV/AIDS stellen ein elementares Hindernis im Kampf gegen die Immunschwächekrankheit dar. In Südafrika fielen diese in der Vergangenheit so drastisch aus, dass Betroffene das Bekanntwerden ihrer HIV-Infektion mit dem Leben bezahlt haben. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt eine Ursachenanalyse HIV/AIDS-bezogener Stigmatisierungsprozesse in der südafrikanischen Gesellschaft dar. Basierend auf sozialwissenschaftlichen Theorien und empirischen Vorkenntnissen wird ein Erhebungsinstrument zur Erfassung stigmatisierender Einstellungen entwickelt. ...

    uar-studies-70 coverVol. 70: Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada:
    Oil Abundance and Economic Growth.
    This book deals with the role of oil abundance in economic growth. The major theoretical contribution of the analysis is the transformation of the rentier state theory into the language of mathematical economics. The mathematical formalization of the rentier state theory enables a more sophisticated analytical tool for the assessment of the role of nonrenewable resource revenues in economic growth and institutional dynamics. The embedding of the elements of a rentier state into the labor surplus economy framework leads to grave consequences as reflected in the quantitative part of the survey. The augmented labor surplus economy model shows that both the political economy and the purely economic causes of the resource curse can have similar effects on the resource allocation in the affected nation. ...

    Please find the full abstracts and more information here.

  • 14-11-2016

    Journal Article by Amr Khafagy

    Amr Khafagy, PhD IDS student at the IEE, published an article in the Journal of Institutional Economics:
    "Political institutions and financial cooperative development".

    This paper analyses the influence of political institutions on the development of financial cooperatives. It proposes a political economy theory where autocratic regimes deliberately oppose the development of a well-functioning financial cooperative sector to maintain their political influence, and prevent the formation of strong pressure groups that can threaten the current political status quo and reduce the governing elites’ economic benefits from underdeveloped and exclusive financial sector. Using panel data from 65 developing countries from 1995–2014, the results show that democracy, political rights and civil liberties promote financial cooperative development. These results are robust in controlling for endogeneity as well as other economic and institutional factors.

    More info and the full text article:

  • 15-08-2016

    New Publication by Davison Muchadenyika

    Davison Muchadenyika from Zimbabwe, PhD candidate at the South African - German Centre for Development Research, published a new paper titled 'Multi-Donor Trust Funds and Fragile States: Assessing the Aid Effectiveness of the Zimbabwe Multi-Donor Trust Fund'.

    Research for this paper was largely conducted during Davison worked on his Master thesis for the Bochum Programme of Development Management at the University of the Western Cape.